WHERE OTHERS WAVERED – Oku kala kwandje moGhana

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Onda thiki moGhana muApilili 1960. Moshilongo shokuuninginino wAfrica ondi i yadha mehala ndyoka olyo endiki lyoonkambadhala nehwahwameko enene opo enenevi Africa li mangululwe lyo li kale li na uukumwe. Mekondjo lya tya ngaaka omo woo twali tuna okupitila mo OPO, tse pamwe noohailwa mevi lyetu mewiliko ngaashi lyelelo lya Herero, aaNama, noshowo ongundu yo Swanu. Sho nda thiki mo Accra sha Ghana onda adha mu na oshigongi shedhina Positive Action Conference, sha longekidhwa kOmuperesidende, Kwame Nkrumah, tashi kondjitha iilonga yepangelo lyaFrance sho lya li tali lolo iikondjitho yolute, tali shi ningile mombuga yaSahara. Pethimbo ndyoka Algeria oshikolonyekwa longo sha France kwa li tashi kondjele emanguluko neipangelo mwene. Oshigongi osho tuu shoka osha yembe noku ulika okwaana ombili omolwa okutinda kwepangelo lyokatongo lya South Africa oku tula South West Africa momake gIigwana Hangano. Oku ya kwa ndje mo Accra okwa egululile ndje oompito, molwashoka pethimbo nda thikimo, olya li ethimbo lyomalunduluko omanene pa ndjokonona ya Africa. Ethikamo lyaantu yaSouth West Africa oku kondjitha okatongo moWindhoek, sho aantu ya tindi oku tembukila ko Katutura, okwa landulwa koshiningwanima sho moSharpville mo South Africa, sho aahololi yo madhiladhilo oyendji ya li ya yahwa kaapolisi yokatongo. Oshiningwanima oshikwawo she lunduluko ooshoka sho iilongo oyindji menenevi oya li yiipyakidhila nomalongekidho gemanguluko, ngaashi Congo ndyoka lya li muukoloni waBelgiam, lya li li na ko ashike  omasiku gontumba opo li manguluke.

Eyo lyandje mo Ghana unene tuu moshilandopangelo Accra olya li lya tegelelwa na onda li nda taambwako nawa. Mo Accra onda tsakanenemo nOmusitagongalo, Michael Scott ya li pamwe na Fanuel Kozonguizi. Mbaka yaali oya li ya thigipo South West Africa kuyele momumvo 1958 no ku ya  ko New York oku ka fala oshikumungu sha South West Africa  kIigwana Hangano. Moku kala kwandje moAccra onda tsakaneke aawiliki oyendji aAfrica ya za komahangano omakondjelimanguluko, mwaambaka omwa kwatelwa Omuperesidende, Kwame Nkrumah gwa Ghana yemwene, Patrice Lumumba, Josef Kasavubu, na Frantz Fanon a kalelapo ehangano Emangululi lyopashigwana lya Algeria[FLN].

Mbaka oya li aawiliki mboka ya dhana onkandangala onene memangululo lyenenevi Africa. Ngame onda li nda gandja uumbangi wandje wopakana kombinga yoshiningwanima shomo 10 Desemba 1959 mOld Location moVenduka. Oshiningwanima shika uuyuni owe shi uvu owala tashi hokololwa miikundaneki, ihe kapena nando ehangano nenge oshigongi shu uvile ehokololo ndyok a okuza komuhokololi ngoka a li po sho iikolokosha mbyoka ya tameke naasho ya hulithwapo. Onkene ngame onda li ndina ompito opo ndi hokolole pakana nkene iikolokosha mbyoka ya holoka. Onda li woo nda popi no ku indila eyambidhidho lyoshigongi shika opo oshilongo shetu South West Africa shi tulwe kohi yewiliko lyIigwana Hangano meendelelo. Awiliki yomahangano omakondjeli manguluko moSouth Africa, yoo Tambo, Segal, na Ndohotola Dadoo oshowo aakalelipo yo PAC oya li woo moshigongi shoka sha kundathana kombinga ya South Africa.

Petameko lela noku yele otwe shi popi sha yela nawa kutya tse ka tu shi oshitopolwa sha South Africa lyokatongotongo na otu li  oshilongo noshitopolwa sha yooloka, na otwa hala oku pewa uuthemba wetu woku ilela tse yene.

Otandi dhimbulukwa iitya ya Nkrumah poshigongi shoka. Kohi yoshipalanyolo sha li tashi ti, Enenevi olya penduthwa, enenenima ndyoka lya li lya kotha olya penduthwa. Enenevi alihe olya li lya kalelwapo poshigongi shika oku za ko South Africa sigo oko Algeria, nomupopi a simana poshigongi shika okwa li Nkrumah ye mwene. Ngame onda li nda kundathana oshipala noshipala na Nkrumah pomalweedhe  ga yooloka, mpoka a tsu ndje omukumo opo ndi tsikile naashoka nda li te longo, ta ti epangelo lya Ghana ota li tu yambidhidha. Shika osha li sha kumike ndje oku tseya kutya oshilongo shimwe sha manguluka moAfrica otashi tu yambidhidha, pethimbo ndyoka twa li tatu mono eyambidhidho, ihe olindji olya li tali zi kaantu mboka iilongo yawo ya li natango muukoloni waEuropa. Oshinima shika osha pendula euveko mokati kaantu yAfrica opo ya tameke okupula eithikameno nemanguluko lyawo.

Kwame Nkrumah nonando okwa li oye omutungi omunene gwemanguluko lyoshilongo she, okwa ka kala naa kondjithi mboka ye mu thiminike opo a ze mo moshilongo she noku kala omimvo dhe dha hugunina dhonkalamwenyo muundjendi moConakry, Guinea. Okwa ka mana oondjenda 27 Apilili 1972 a manene mo Bucharest, Romania, hoka a li ta mono epango. Okwa li a ningilwa efumviko lyopapangelo mo Conakry momasiku 14 Mai 1972, noku za mpoka olutu lwe olwa ka fumvikwa podoolopa moka a valelwa yedhina Nkroful momasiku 9 Juli 1972. Opo ihe okwa ka fumvikululwa mehala hali ithanwa Kwame Nkrumah Memorial Park moAccra momumvo 1992. Efumviko ndika olya eta mpoka kutya onkandangala ndjoka Nkrumah a dhana memanguluko lyoshilongo she oya yalulwa nokudhimbulukiwa. Omuwiliki gwa Ghana pethimbo ndyoka, Leitenanda Omuhingidhila, Jerry Rawlings okwa li a hiya ndje pethimbo, ongo omuperesidende gumwe awike nda li metalelopo moshilongo shoka, opamwe nomuperesidende gwAfrican National Congress, Oliver Tambo. Ngame onda li nda pewa ompito ndi popithe oshigwana pefumviko ndyoka.

Mo Accra,ngame na Kozonguizi, otwa li twa kundathana nomutumwa gwomuperesidende gwa Egypt, Gamal Abdel Nasser, ngoka iile oku mu kalelapo, poshigongi sho Positive Action Conference. Okwe tu pulakene nohokwe noshowo nolukeno. Omolwashika ngame onda landula omukalelipo nguka. Nekwatho lyotango ndyoka twa mono oku za koEgypt olya zi komutumwa gowina gwaPeresidende Nasser, sho etu pe iiponda ethele limwe kehe gumwe. Noshimaliwa shika ngame onda landa eshina lyokutopatopa lyOlivetti, ndyoka nda kala ha ndi longitha ethimbo ele pethimbo lyekondjelomanguluko na ondi li na sigo onena.

Pethimbo ndyoka nda thiki moGhana, Liberia na Ethiopia pehala lyiilongo ya manguluka muAfrica oya tameke iihokolola yopaveta oku kondjitha South Africa mompangu yOpaigwana yUuyuki mo Hague, ta ye mu hokololitha sho inaa gwanithapo omautho goku wilika South West Africa pamautho gIigwana Hangano gomomumvo 1920 ngoka ga za kehangano ndyoka lya pingenwapo kIigwana Hangano. Mokulongekidha iihokolola mbika ngame onda yi ko Liberia noku tsakanena na Ernest Gross omunaveta omuAmerica ngoka a li ta longekidha iihokolola mbika yopaveta.

Ohofa yUuyuki yopaigwana oya li ya gandja omayele gopaveta iikando itatu pokati komimvo 1950 na 1956 kombinga ya South West Africa naangaka agehe oga li muuwanawa waakalimo yoshilongo shika South West Africa, ihe South Africa lyokatongotongo ina li ipula nago , olye ga tala ashike ga fa gaana oshilonga, noku dhina woo oontokolwa dhIigwana Hangano. Konima yeilongekidho enene nolyo muule, Liberia na Ethiopia iilyolongo ayike yAfrica molutu lwIigwana Hangano oya ningi eindilo kOhofa Yuuyuki yopashigwana momasiku 4 November 1960 pautho lyontokolwa onti 7 yina sha newiliko  lyiilongo ina yi manguluka kohi yIigwana Hangano.

Ndika oya utha kutya ngele opwa holoka okwaa uvathana pokati koshilongo shoka sha pewa ewiliko lyoshithigilwalongo, noshilongo oshilyo shIigwana Hangano, uuna okwaa uvathana huka itaa ku vulu oku kandulwapo pakukundathana nena shika otashi vulu oku falwa kOhofa yuuyuki yopaigwana.

Ohofa yopaigwana Yuuyuki kohi yontokolwa 37 moontokolwa dhayo oya li ya kuthapo iilonga yimwe yompangu  tayi kalele. Nongele South Africa okwa tindi oku vulika ke ketokolo lyompangu nena Oraata yegameno yIigwana Hangano oya li yi na oku indilwa opo yi katuke onkatu oku mona kutya etokolo ndyoka olya tulwa miilonga. Nongele shika osha keelelwa ku shimwe shiilyolongo ta yi kalele mOraata yEgameno nena, Oshigongi Shaayehe shIigwana Hangano otashi vulu oku ningila oondjikila oshilongo shoka, shampa ashike etokolo ndyoka lya kolekwa kiititatu iyali yiilyolongo yIigwana Hangano.

Oshipotha shika sha falwa kompangu ku Ethiopia na Liberia osha li oshinima sha simana kutse. Unene tuu oku shi talela momishangwa ndhoka twa shangele kIigwana Hangano uule womimvo heyali, omatokolo ngoka ga ningwa  noshowo uutokolitho, Iigwana Hangano oya li tayi ka tegelelwa oku katukila South Africa oonkatu, ngele Ohofa oya tokola muuwanawa waantu yaSouth West Africa. Otwa li tatu yambidhidha opo oshikumungu sha South West Africa shi falwe kOmpangu yopaigwana Yuuyuki, na otwa gandja elongelokumwe lyetu koohahende mboka ya li mewiliko lya Ernest Gross.

Omanga nda li mo Monrovia moLiberia onda tsakanene na Mburumba Kerina ngoka a li ta longo moombelewa dhuukaleliposhilongo sha Liberia ko UN. Otwa tokola okunkondopeka egandjo lyomakemo getu kIigwana Hangano mokulundulula edhina lyehangano Ovamboland People’s Organization[OPO] ndyoka lya li tali gandja ethano lya fa ehangano ashike lyopashitopolwa ndele kali shi lyopashigwana.

Onkene otwa tumu etumwalaka koVenduka kutya edhina OPO nali lundululilwe medhina South West African People’s Organisation[Swapo]. Oshinima shimwe shoka shetu mangele kumwe nosha teyapo oongamba dhuukwamuhoko ndhoka oombulu dha li dha hala oku kalekapo ooshoka  sho twa kumikwa ko ma inyengo menenevi taga kondjele emanguluko. Iiningwanima mbyoka yomoGhana, Guinea Conakry, Belgian Congo, Central Africa Federation of Northern and Southern Rhodesia na Nyasalanda, mewiliko lya Kaunda nongundu ye UNIP, Banda nongundu ye Mawema, noshowo iita yemanguluko yaMau Mau ya kwatelwa komeho ku Jomo Kenyatta moKenya. Tanganyika kohi yewiliko lya Nyerere oya li popepi nemanguluko. Onkene iiningwanima ayihe mbika ya li tayi inyenge palwe menenevi oye tu kumike opo tu tsikile noku kondjitha epangelo lyokatongo lya South Africa mo South West Africa.

Meni woo lya South Africa epangelo lyokatongo olya li, li shi omainyengo ngaka, na olya kambadhala opo tse twaa itale ongo aa Africa sho lya etapo edhina epe lyaaluudhe moku ya ithana oyo “aabantu”. Oku za mpoka epangelo ndika olya tameke oku tulapo omilandu dha kankamekelwa koshitya shoka ngaashi omavigumbo haga ithanwa “Bantustan”, hoka oko kwa tulwa aaluudhe, momahala gevi lya tutuka ihaa li gandja iipalutha ya gwana, omanga oonalunanga naatiligane yalwe yi ipe evi ndyoka eyamba mu shaashoka. Aaluudhe oya tulwa momahala goluhepo woo nelalakano opo ya thiminikwe aluhe oku ga thigapo ya ka konge iilonga komahala giilando hoka kuna iilumbu, molupe lwo ku ka longa kondhalate noku futwa oondjambi dholuhepo.

Omutiligane gumwe ngoka a li komufala gwa South West Africa okwa li uulike okwaa shi sha kwe sho a ti eetepo lyedhina bantu oshinima sha puka oshoka otashi ningitha aaluudhe mo South West Africa ya dhiladhile kutya yo aamwayinathana naamboka yoko South Africa. Ka li eshi wo kutya tse otwa kala nale tu shishi kutya tse aamwayinathana naantu aaluudhe yokoSouth Africa, na otwa tindi okwi ikalekelwa pamukalo ngoka.

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