Uuna South Africa lyuukoloni a homona Angola

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Ondjokonona yIita yAngola nenge Iita yomiihwa yAngola oya kala aluhe yi na ombinga yimwe kutya omatanga gomukolonyeki omunakatongo South Africa oga ya moAngola ga landula ooguerrilla dha South West Africa ndhoka dha kondjitha uukoloni mewiliko lyoSWAPO hadhi ithanwa People’s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN). Aakwiita mbaka oya li taya kondjele okumangulula Namibia. Ondjokonona nehokololo ndika inali popya sha kombinga yaanankondo mopolitika yuuyuni yopetameko lyomimvo 1970, sho iita hayi ithanwa COLD WAR ya li ya lundalala.

Embo epe lya shanga kombinga yiita yAngola , kohi yoshipalanyolo “A Far-Away War” olya holokapo omathimbo ngaka  okuthitika oomwaka ndhoka dha dhimbiwa kaahokololi oshowo aanyoli yalwe kombinga yiita mbika.Ndika olya hokolola iita yomAngola ye yi talela mombinga yilwe. Ehokololo ndika otali  kwathele oku uvako nawa onkalo yopolitika moAngola, oshitopolwa shuumbugantu wAfrika oshowo muuyuni nonkene ndjika ya fala miita moAngola okuza 1975 sigo 1989. Ehulilo lyiita mbika olya etapo emanguluko lya Namibia nehulepo lyokatongotongo moSouth Africa.Mbika oya fala  wo ponkatu  yondjila yombili moAngola okuza tuu nkene aakolonyeki ya Putu ya zilemo ompadhi ketako.

Embo olya dhenge omuthindo kwaashoka shalongwapo miita mbika kaaKuba, kaaSoviets, Amerika, China oshowo aadhaninkandangala mopolitika yalwe. Embo olya nyolwa kaapekapeki, kaalongwantu oshowo kaakundaneki ya longitha omishangwa dhonale ndhoka inaadhi ulikwa nale oshowo ya kundathana noonzo ndhoka inaadhi popiwa nadho nale okunyanyangidha moKuba, Russia nenge moSouth Africa.Moshinyolwa shika sha fupipikwa Desie Heita gwa Kundana ota landula ondjila nkene ya fala kiita yAngola.

 

Omatanga gaakwiita yomukolonyeki kaPutu sho giikuthamo onkolonkolo moAngola  mo 1975,omatanga gepangelo lyokakombo noludhi lya South Africa oga homona Angola. Ehomono ndika olya lundulula ondjila yondjokonona yoshitopolwa shika ashihe.

Iita yomoAngola nenge iita yomomakuti gAngola ngaashi yamwe ye yi luku, oyo iita mbyoka ya tameke Iita yokokule ngaashi sha nyolwa membo ndika epe.

Iita Iitalala okulundululila mOshiwambo [nenge iitaa yoohapu mbyoka ya kondjwa kiilongo yuukapitali naambyoka yuusosiale pethimbo ndiyaka] oya eta opo Soviet Union  a kale ta kwathele omahangano omakondjelimangulukop ngoka ga li taga kondjitha uukoloni onkene nguka okwa li wo a yambidhidha Angola. Sho Soviet a tokola oku kwatha ehangano lya Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) mewiliko lya Agostinho Neto,ndika olya li wo tali mono ekwatho okuza ku Tanzania, Zambia noku Frelimo gwaMozambique ngoka oye a li kwatelakomeho epangelo lyetaaguluko moshilongo shoka sha li wo oshikolonyekwa shaPutu.

Manga aaAfrika yamwe taya kwathele eyokomeho moAngola , Mobutu Sese Seko moZaire okwa adhika a ninga ehewa lyaatondi yuukommunisi yoKuuninginini, nokwa dhikapo omakwatathano omawanawa nehangano ekondjelimanguluko lyAngola lyedhina {National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA) ndyoka lyali tali wilikwa ku Holden Roberto, ndika nalyo olya li lyiitala olyo omupangeli gwomondjila gwAngola.

Konima yetekepo lyepangelo lya Kaetano mu Mai 1974, epangelo lyaPutu ndyoka lya li tali fadhukapo okuza miikolonyekwa longo yalyo olya yi moonkudathana na MPLA oshowo na [National Union for the Total Independence of Angola [UNITA] ta wilikwa ku Jonas Savimbi oshowo FNLA. Oonkundathana odha hulile metsokumwe lya Alvor ndyoka lya shainwa momasiku 15 Januali 1975. Oongundu ndhika ndatu odha li dhina okutungapo epangelo lyetaaguluko, oongundu ndhika ndatu odha li koombinga ndhoka tadhi kondjithathana mIita Iitala nenge mbyoka yopokati kIilongo yuukapitali naambyoka yuusosiale[uukommunisi].Onkalo ndjika oya dhigupalele aaPutu mboka kaa yali yena ontseyo nkene taya longekidha okugandja oonkondo dhepangelo ketaaguluko wiliko. Pauvathano ndyoka esiku lyemanguluko olya li lya tokolwa li kale omasiku 11 Novemba 1975.

Manga kuna omasiku omugoyi epangelo lyetaaguluko li tulwe miilonga momasiku 22 Januali 1975, Iilonga yopashigwana yEgameno ya America oya zimine okugandja omagano gooU$ 300 000 KU Roberto gwa FNLA opo a thigathanepo nomahangano omakwawo. Roberto ngoka aadhika nale ha pewa iimaliwa okuza kiilonga yomonanguwi ya America yo CIA[Central Intelligence Agency okwa inyengitha omatanga ge gaakwiita okuza moZaire.

Onkene omanga ashike ohinga inaa yi kaha koombapila dheuvathano lyAlvor iikutit nooholo okuza koondjembo  dha FNLA oya li ta yi gwile maakwiita yo MPLA. Go omatanga ga MPLA’s goArmed Forces for the Liberation of Angola (FAPLA) oga li taga kondjo nonyati okugamena Luanda kaa gwile  miikaha yaakwiita yo FNLA okuza koZaire. Pethimbo olyo tuu ndyoka UNITA mewiliko lya Savimbi okwa li ta homona okuziilila kuumbugantu. Sho ishewe inashi kwata ethimbo sho omatanga ga South Africa ga tondokele moAngola, pamwe naangoka ga FNLA okuza ko Zaire. Pethimbo ndyoka aakwiita ya Kuba nayo oya li ya thika , aaSoviets nayo wo kaya li ya thigalako okukwathela  omatanga ga go FAPLA. Onkene omalugodhi niiponokela kohi yedhina Operation Carlota oya tameke mu Novomba 1975.

Momumvo 1976 oshinima shika osha nenepala. Kombinga yimwe okwa li omatanga goFAPLA ,aaSoviets naaKuba, meyambidhidho lyiilongo yilwe yAfrika ngaashi Congo-Brazzaville ngoka a li ena uumbanda kutya pamwe omaipumomumwe ngaka otaga taagulukile moshilongo she. Ombinga onkwawo okwa li FNLA, UNITA taya kwathelwa kaakwiita ya South Africa, Amerika oshowo aakwiita ya Sese Seko.Epangelo lya Fransa nalyo omo lya li momalugodhi ngaka tali kondjo pamwe naFNLA okugamena uuwanawa walyo miilongo yopokati kAfrika.

Petameko MPLA kali ena uutondwe na UNITA. Utya pethimbo limwe aawiliki ya MPLA oya li ya lombwele aaSoviet meinekelo kutya otashi kakala oshidhigu oku tseiyitha emanguluko lyAngola inaamu kwatelwa UNITA. Nonando MPLA na UNITA oya kala ye na omayooloko gawo mbaka oya li ya kambadhala okuga kandulapo noonkundathana ndele ndhika halwindji dha adha esindano.  MPLA kali a hala okuhulithapo  omakwatathano na UNITA oshowo kali a tala UNITA oye oshiponga paukwiita. Mbaka oya li ya talako FNLA moZaire oye oshiponga oshinene.  Shika osha li epuko enene kombinga ya MPLA okutala UNITA afa inaa nika oshiponga , oshoka sho aakwiita ya South Africa ya  ponokele moAngola okuza moNamibia momasiku 8 Auguste 1975, kaya li ashike ye shi ningi okugamena iilongitho poCalueque noshowo kominkulo dhomulonga gwa Kunene. Mbaka oya hitilile sigo okoshilandopangelo sha Kunene omanga lwopuSeptemba oya li taya dheula aakwiita ya FNLA naUNITA poRundu, meni lyaNamibia, . Omadheulo oga gwedhwa keyambidhidho lyiikondjitho mbyoka oombulu dha li hadhi gandja komatanga ngoka.

Mu Auguste 1975, konyala oomwedhi heyali konima yeshaino lyeuvathano lya Alvor omatanga gokolupadhi gaZaire pamwe naangoka ga FNLA oga li taga ponokele Luanda okuza kolundume omanga ngoka ga South Africa oga li taga ponoka okuza kuumbugantu neipopilo kutya ngaka otaga gamene ondama ya Calueque noRuacana. Onkene MPLA okwiiyadha monkalo yoku gamena Luanda okuza koombinga mbali nongundu ashike yimwe yetanga lyaakwiita ndyoka a li a luka etanga lyaakwiita etimugoyi. Okwa li a luku ndika etimugoyi okutilitha noku halutha aatondi opo ya dhiladhile kutya ye okuna ongundu onene yaakwiita,omanga paushili wowene MPLA okwa li ashike ena etanga limwe  ndyoka lya li inaali dheukikika nawa.

Molugodhi lumwe FNLA okwa li naakwiita 3,500  mwakwatelwa aaZaire ye li 1,200 taya longitha iikuti ya longwa koAmerica, okukondjitha etanga etimugoyi lya MPLA.Osha ka yelela MPLA kutya ite ke shipondola okushunithako FNLA naayambidhidhi ye , onkene oya indile ekwatho kaaKuba, mboka petameko ya tumu aagandjimayele okukwathela ashike uule woomwedhi hamano.

Ekwatho ndika inali enda nawa petameko, molwashoka aagandjimayele oya tumwa nondhila ya kulupa ndjoka ya kala noku lambela miilando mpaka naampeyaka mondjila okuza koHavana oku ya Luanda.

Iilongitho naakwiita mboka ya tumwa nooskepa ndatu oya ka helukila kominkulofuta  dhaana aantu moAngola omanga yamwe oya ka helukila komunkulofuta gwa Congo-Brazaville. Mbala aagandjimayele yopakwiita oyi yadha taya lu omalugodhi pehala lyokudheula Angola nkene taya lwitha aatondi yawo. FNLA, neyambidhidho lyaZaire naaSouth Afrika  kuumbugantu oya li taya dhenge MPLA noonkondo  noku kundukidha Luanda. Aakwiita yo FNLA nomalugodhi galula okwa li konyala ookilometa 22 popepi noLuanda.

Molwonkalo yoshiponga ndjika ya li ya taalela MPLA iilonga yomalugodhi naakwiita yapyokoka gedhina Carlota oya tameke sho Kuba a tumu omatanga ngoka okukwatha MPLA a kondjithe aahomoni naaponokeli ye mboka konyala ya li ye li moLuanda, pehala hali ithanwa Quaifangondo. Pamwe oya shunithako omatanga ga FNLA-kolundume sigo okoongamba dha Zaire. Ihe pethimbo olyo tuu ndyoka omatanga mewiliko lyaSouth Africa oga li taga hweenene okuza muumbugantu miitopolwa ya Lobito na Novo Redondo nelalakano oku kuthako Luanda.

Olugodhi pokati koFAPLA naakwiita Cuban okukondjitha ongundu ya South Africa hayi ithanwa  Zulu olwa dhenge pombanda sho FAPLA naaKuba ye shipondola oku kwatapo oombulu ne momasiku 13 Desemba pokati ka Cela na Quibala. Aakwiita mbaka oya ulikilwa iikundaneki yopaigwana, mpoka ya hempulula kutya oya kuthombinga mokuningila aantu yAngola uuhwapindi. Oonkwata mbali dhaambaka yane odha falwa ko Addis Baba, Ethiopia, hoka oshigongi shEhangano yUukumwe wAfrika sha li momutumba. Omasiku gaali konima yomutumba gwo OAU, ehangano ndika olya yalula epangelo lyoRepublika yAngola  mewiliko lya MPLA.

Ihe iita yoyene oya li pokutameka lela. Mbika ka ya li we ashike iita okutidha South Afrika kOndonga yAngola ndele nee oya ningi iita yokumutidha moNamibia oshowo okuteyapo okatongo nokakombo noludhi mu South Afrika lyolyene. Onkene Angola okwa ningi ehala lyokulwila iita mbika , mu mbyoka mwe ke ya aagamimbinga aape,mwa kwatelwa ekalepo lyaagandjimayele yopakwiita ya  Soviet, elongitho lyiikondjithi ya longwa moSoviet unene tuu miita yomombepo, mbaka oya joinwa wo kaakwiita yoPLAN ya Namibia oshowo etanga lyaakwiita ya dheulwa nawa.Omwaalu gwaakwiita ya Kuba moAngola ogwa li gwa londo sigo opaantu omayovi gomathele 300 000 sho iilonga yomalugodhi ya Operation Carlota ya thiki pehulilo..

Oku ya pomumvo 1987 aakwiita ya Kuba  noyaAngolan oya li konyala ookilometa omilongo ntano okuza poongamba dhaNamibia, omanga aakwiita yoPLAN mboka ya adhika ya pyokoka momalugodhi goguerrillla nayo oya kala taya yi moNamibia oku homona etanga lya South West Africa Territorial Forces (SWATF) nookamba dhomatanga ngoka.

Sho a ndhindhilike kutya iita oya lula noku dhengwa eto sindika okuli popepi miita mbika oonkundathana odha tamekwa mu Juli 1987 pamwe netsikilo lyiita momahala goku holamena.Oonkundathana ndhika petameko kadhali dha eta sha.Iinima oya ka katuka ashike shalandula sho aakwiita yaKuba ya tsikile okukala moAngola noya tsikile okudhenga omatanga gomutondi , Amerika okwa tameke okuninga omuhangukununi. Omathaneko oga li okutula okatokolitho kIigwana Hangano miilonga nonande haka oka li ka kwatakanithwa  nezemo lya  Kuba moAngola  oshowo ezemo lyomatanga gomukolonyeki South Africa moAngola. Momumvo 1988 Operation Carlota okwa thiki pehulilo sho oondhila dhiita dha Soviet dholudhi lwo Mig-23 dha mbomo aakwiita ya South Africa poCaluque sha landula oshiponokela shaSouth Africa  kaakwiita yaKuba na Angola poTchipa. Iita mbika oya kutha omimvo 15 noomwedhi ne opo yi hulepo.

*Embo A Far-Away War, Angola 1975 – 1989, olya dhindwa ku Ian Liebenberg, Jorge Risquet, na Vladimir Shubin, ndika olya nyanyangidhwa ku SUN MeDIA Stellenbosch (Imprint SUN PRESS). Embo lyomapeko omakukutu otali landwa oo N$350 (ISBN: 978‐1‐920689‐72‐8) nooN$280 kwaandyoka lyoko Intaneta, e-book (ISBN: 978‐1‐920689‐73‐5). Otali adhika  okuza ko www.africansunmedia.co.za / www.sun‐e‐shop.co.za / africansunmedia.snapplify.com

E‐mail: orders@africansunmedia.co.za. Tel: 021 201 0071

 

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