Esiku omatanga gaKuba ga kankameka eponokelo lyaSouth Africa moAngola

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Ondjokonona yiita yAngola nenge iita yomiihwa yAngola oya kala aluhe yi na ombinga yimwe kutya omatanga gomukolonyeki omunakatongo South Africa oga ya moAngola ga landula ooguerrilla dhaSouth West Africa ndhoka dha kondjitha uukoloni mewiliko lyoSWAPO hadhi ithanwa People’s Liberation Army of Namibia (PLAN). Aakwiita mbaka oya li taya kondjele okumangulula Namibia. Ondjokonona nehokololo ndika inali popya sha kombinga yaanankondo mopolitika yuuyuni yopetameko lyomimvo 1970, sho iita hayi ithanwa COLD WAR ya li ya lundalala.

Embo epe lya shanga kombinga yiita yAngola , kohi yoshipalanyolo “A Far-Away War” olya holokapo omathimbo ngaka okuthitika oomwaka ndhoka dha dhimbiwa kaahokololi osho wo aanyoli yalwe kombinga yiita mbika.Ndika olya hokolola iita yomAngola ye yi talela mombinga yilwe. Ehokololo ndika otali kwathele oku uvako nawa onkalo yopolitika moAngola, oshitopolwa shuumbugantu wAfrika osho wo muuyuni nonkene ndjika ya fala miita moAngola okuza 1975 sigo 1989. Ehulilo lyiita mbika olya etapo emanguluko lya Namibia nehulepo lyokatongotongo moSouth Africa.Mbika oya fala wo ponkatu yondjila yombili moAngola okuza tuu nkene aakolonyeki ya Putu ya zilemo ompadhi ketako.

Embo olya dhenge omuthindo kwaashoka sha longwa po miita mbika kaaKuba oku keelela opo South Africa kohi yepangelo lyokatongotongo a kwate ko oshilandopangelo Luanda konima sho omatanga gomukolonyeki nguka ga li ashike konyala ookilometa omilongo mbali nambali okuya moLuanda.Moshinyolwa Desie Heita ota shanga kwaashoka sha longwa kaakwiita yaKuba sho omatanga ga South Afrika lyokatongo ga li ga ponokele moAngola.

Sha landula elunduluko moPutu mu Mai 1975,epangelo lyuukoloni ndyoka lya li tali yi ontuku mLisbon olya yi moonkundathana no MPLA, UNITA gwa Jonas Savimbi osho wo FNLA. Oonkundathana ndhika odha hulile meuvathano lyo Alvor ndyoka lya kolekwa komahangano ngoka gatatu momasiku 15 Januali 1975.Omahangano ngaka gatatu oga li gena okutungapo epangelo lyetaaguluko.
Oongundu ndhika ndatu odha li mookamba dha yooloka kombinga yaahoka mbaka haya mono omakwatho okuza kiilongo mbyoka iinankondo ya li mekondjithathano lyiita yOmbepo ontalala.

Oshinima shika osha dhigupaleke iilonga yepangelo lya Putu okugandja epangelo lyetaaguluko koongundu ndhoka dha li tadhi kondjithathana.

Esiku lyoku gandja epangelo kaantu yAngola olya li omasiku 11 Novemba 1975. Iita yoCold War oyina ondjokonona ya Soviet Union ethimbo ndiyaka a li taya yambidhidha ekondjelo manguluko naakondjithi yuukoloni kombinga yimwe. Moshinima shika Angola naye okwa li wo inaa pitililwapo.Momumvo 1974 aa Soviet oya tokola okuyambidhidha MPLA nenge Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola , mewiliko lya Agostinho Neto, Tanzania , Zambia na Mozambique kohi ya FRELIMO nayo oya li taya yambidhidha MPLA.

Ihe Mobutu Sese Seko moZaire okwa li popepi niilongo iikondjithi yuukommunisi mbyoka yokUuninginino na okwa li ena omakwatathano geli nawa nehangano lyo National Front for the Liberation of Angola[FNLA] ngoka a li ta wilikwa ku Holden Roberto, lyo ehangano ndika olya li itala lyolyene ongo olyo li na uuthemba wo kulela Angola.

Omanga kuna omasiku omugoyi opo epangelo lyetaaguluko li tulwe miilonga momasiku 22 Januali 1975 Oraata yegameno yepangelo lyaUSA oya zimine okugandja oodola dha U$ 300 000 omagano ku Roberto gwa FNLA opo a thigathanepo nomahangano omakwawo moAngola.

Mu Febuluali 1975 Roberto okwa li nale a pewa omakwatho okupitila miilonga yomonanguwi ya America nenge CIA, omanga inaa gwedhelwapo omagano ngoka, na okwa adhika a tembudha omatanga ge okuza ko Zaire.

Omanga ashike nookuli ohinga inaa yi kaha momishangwa dheuvathano lyoko Alvor iikuti yooroketa nomortiira oya li nale tayi gwile moAngola, naashika osha thiminike aakwiita yoMPLA ya popile oshilandopangelo Luanda opo shaa kwatweko kaakwiita ya FNLA oku za koZaire kombinga yimwe osho wo okwa li ta kondjo oku keelela UNITA okuza kuumbugantu .

Nomepathimo lyeho aakwiita yaSouth Afrika oya homona Angola pamwe naamboka yaFNLA mboka ya li ya longitha Zaire ongo egumbo moka ya li ya dhika oontanda dhawo.

Angola okwa kugile ekwatho okuza ku Fidel Castro, ngoka a yamukula mbala moku tuma etanga lyaakwiita ya Kuba okukoleka omatanga goFAPLA.

Pethimbo omatanga gaSouth Afrika ga ponokele Angola okuza moNamibia mesiku 8 lyAuguste 1975 oya li ya longo shapitila poku gamena ondama ya Calueque komulonga gwaKunene. Mbaka oya ponoka noku homona oshilongo shoka osigo oya adha oshilandopangelo sha Cunene. No mu Septemba aaSouth Afrika oya li taya dheula aakwiita yaFNLA na UNITA moRundu meni lya Namibia kakele koku pa aakwiita mbaka oondjembo.

Mu Auguste omo tuu moka omumvo 1975 konyala oomwedhi heyali sho euvathano lyAlvor lya kolekwa omatanga gaZaire pamwe naangoka ga FNLA oga li taga homona oLuanda okuza kuumbangalantu, omanga omatanga ga South Africa ngoka ga adhika ga kuthako oCalueque anuwa okugamena oonzo dhomeya komulonga gwa Kunene poRuacana.MPLA okwi iyadha ta gamene oLuanda okuza koombinga mbali.

MPLA okwa li ashike ta gamene Luanda nongundu yimwe yaakwiita eiyi luka obrigade ontimugoyi. Etanga olya pewa edhina ndyoka okugoyapaleka aatondi ye ya dhiladhile kutya okuna etanga enene.

FNLA neyambidhidho lyaakwiita ya Zaire naSouth Afrika kombinga onkwawo oya li taya umbu Luanda omakolokela unene ngaaka kutya oya li ya dhingoloka oshilando shoka . Konyala FNLA okwa li oshinano shookilo 22 popepi noLuanda.

Fidel Castro ongo okommanda yomatanga gaKuba okwa tumine koAngola omatanga ogendji ngoka ga pyokoka oku ka kwathela MPLA moku shunithako iiponokela yomutondi ngoka a li popepi noLuanda ali poQuafingondo. Aakuba naMPLA oye shi pondola oku shunitha omatanga ngoka ga li taga wilikwa kuFNLA noku ga thindikila sigo okoongamba na Zaire. Ihe aakwiita yomukolonyeki South Africa oya li taya hitilile yu uka ko Luanda okuza koshitopolwa sha Lobito na Novo Redondo nelalakano oku kuthako Luanda.
Olugodhi pokati koFAPLA naakwiita yaKuba moku kondjitha aakwiita yaSouth Afrika olwa adha ethikilo sho Aakuba noFAPLA ye shi pondola oku shunithako aakwiita yomukolonyeki South Afrika , nomo ku ninga ngaaka oya li wo ya kwata po aakwiita yaSouth Afrika ye li yane momasiku 13 Desemba 1975 pokati komahala Cela na Quibala.

Aakwiita mbaka oya li yu ulikwa mbala komeho giikundaneki yuuyuni, naambaka anuwa oya li ya hempulula kutya yo oya li ya ponokele noku ningila aantu yAngola uuhwapindi.

Oonkwatwa mbali dhomwaandhika ne odha falwa ko Addis Ababa Ethiopia hoka pethimbo ndyoka kwali oshigongi sho OAU.Konima yomasiku gaali ehangano lyUukumwe wAfrika olya yalula Angola ongo oshilongo sha manguluka kohi yewiliko lya MPLA.
Ihe iita opo ashike yali tayi ka tameka lela. Mbika kaya li we iita okugamena Angola ndele oya li iita oku tidhamo okukalamo kwomatanga ga South Afrika moNamibia nomoSouth Africa lyolyene.

Onkene Angola okwa ningi oye ehala lyoku hingila iita , mbyoka ya li ya joinwa kiilyo iipe moka mwa kwatelwa aagandji mayele yopakwiita yaSoviet osho wo iikondjitho ya za koshilongo shoka. Iikondjitho mbika oya li wo ya kwatelamo oondhila dhiita. Etanga lyaakwiita ya dheulikika yo PLAN nalyo olya tameke oku kutha ombinga. Pethimbo ndika konyala aakwiita omayovi 300 000 yaKuba oya li ya kwathele moAngola miita ya lukwa Omalugodhi ga Carlota, ngaka oga lukilwa omukiintu omupika omuAfrika ngoka ali a falwa muupika koKuba.

Okuya momumvo 1987 omatanga gaakwiita ya Cuba naAngola oga li taga longele konyala ookilo 50 okuza kuumbangalantu woongamba dhaNamibia, omanga aakwiita yoPLAN oya li taya vulu oku ya moNamibia ngaashi ya hala noku homona omatanga gopashitopolwa go SWATF.

South Africa sho a ndhindhilike kutya otashi nyengana okusindana iita mbika okwa zimine okuya poshitaafula shoonkundathana pamwe netsikilo lyiita. Oonkundathana odha li itaadhi eta sha petameko sigo oosho aakwiita yaCuba ya tsikile okudhenga aakwiita yaSouth Africa. Shika osha thiminike America a ninge omuhangukununi. Ethaneko olya kala aluhe li uvitikeko, kokutya etulo miilonga lyokatokolitho kIigwana Hangano, otali endele pamwe neikuthomo lyaSouth Afrika moNamiba . Omalugodhi kohi yedhina Carlota oga hulile momumvo 1988 sho oondhila dhiita dha longwa moSoviet dha dhenge nokusinda omatanga ga South Afrika poCalueque.Ngaka oge shi ningi oku galulila South Africa iikonene sho ali a ponokele aakwiita ya Angola naamboka yo Kuba poTchipa. Iita mbika kohi yedhina Carlota ya hulupo.

*Embo A Far-Away War, Angola 1975 – 1989, olya dhindwa ku Ian Liebenberg, Jorge Risquet, na Vladimir Shubin, ndika olya nyanyangidhwa ku SUN MeDIA Stellenbosch (Imprint SUN PRESS). Embo lyomapeko omakukutu otali landwa oo N$350 (ISBN: 978-1-920689-72-8) nooN$280 kwaandyoka lyoko Intaneta, e-book (ISBN: 978-1-920689-73-5). Otali adhika okuza ko www.africansunmedia.co.za / www.sun-e-shop.co.za / africansunmedia.snapplify.com
E-mail: orders@africansunmedia.co.za. Tel: 021 201 0071

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