Aantu naya kale ye na mo sha metonatelo lyomeya

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Pwaa na eyambidhidho lya gwana, oshidhigu kaanamikunda moNamibia ya tonatele omeya nawa.

KuGina Ziervogel, Salma Hegga, Brendon Bosworth naIrene Kunamwene

Onkalo yuudemokoli mboka opo tawu tsapuka moAfrica owa tula miilonga omikalo dhoku andjagakaneka omayakulo pondondo yopayitopolwa momikalo dhi ili okuza moomvula dho 1990. Moshikondo shomeya, eandjagakaneko lyomayakulo pamuthika gwopashitopolwa olya li lyi na elalakano lyokutopola oshinakugwanithwa shokutonatela oonzo dhomeya nomayakulo gadho. Otashi kutha oshinakugwanithwa komapepe gepangelo lyoshilongo ku kwatelwe mo oondondo dhopevi dhepangelo osho wo omahangano gomoshitopolwa.

Ekuthombinga oshitopolwa sha simana sheandjagakaneko lyomayakulo pamuthika gwopashitopolwa. Tashi lalakanene aantu ya yooloka, miitopolwa oyindji, oye li aakuthimbinga mokuninga omatokolo ge na sha nelongitho netonatelo lyoonzo.

Ope na oshindji tashi vulu okwiilongwa mwaamboka ya kambadhala nokukonaakona nkene taku hwahwamekwa ekuthombinga moshikondo shomeya uule woomvula omi-20 sigo omi-30 dha pita. Nonando pe na omashongo mokuandjaganeka omayakulo pamuthika nguka, ope na wo omasindano ngaashi moGhana, Kenya naIndia.

Omapekaapeko getu otaga tala komikunda dhokuushayi dhi li ndatu moNamiba moshikandjohogololo shaNesi, ndjoka yi li oongamba naAngola. Omapekaapeko ngaka otaga ulike kutya eandjaganeko lyomayakulo gwomeya pamuthika gwopashitopolwa otashi vulika li kale itali eta elunduluko ndyoka kwa li lya nuninwa.Shika omolwaashoka omukalo nguka inagu pupa ko naanaa kokukoleka omawi gaantu yomoshitopolwa nangele otaya vulu okukutha ombinga mokuninga omatokolo.

Omashongo gokutonatela omeya miitopolwa yokuushayi

Okuza mo1997, Namibia okwa landula omukalo gwokulongitha aakawashigwana metonatelo lyomeya. Shika osha hala okutya iitopolwa yokuushayi oyi na okutonatela omeya osho wo okufuta omayakulo ge na sha nomeya. Ookomitiye ndhoka hadhi hogololwa kaakalimo yomiitopolwa moka odhi na mo aantu mboka oyo haya patulula uupomba womeya osho wo iifuta yomeya.Aaiyambi mbaka oyendji kaye shi okulesha. Yo oyendji oye li monkalo yoluhepo. Ohaye shi mono oshidhigu okugwanitha po oshinakugwanithwa shawo shokutonatela omeya naashoka ye na okuninga opo ya vule okuhupa, ngaashi okulima omapya gawo. Shika osha eta uupomba owundji waayehe wu pate, naakalimo yomiitoplwa mboka ya dhengwa koluhepo itaya gwanitha okuteka omeya kuupomba wopaumwene. Uuna uupomba wa pata, aanamukunda ohaya kutha omeya momithima pethimbo lyokwenye. Shika ohashi vulu okweeta uupyakadhi muundjolowele waantu oshoka ongushu yomeya oya nkundipala.

Aanamukunda olundji oye na enyenyeto kutya omatokolo gwomathaneko ihaga tala koompumbwe dhawo. Omukalo nondjila yomakwatathano inayi ya yelela naka ye na ehala mpoka taya vulu okufala omanyenyeto gawo. Onkene okuandjagakaneka omayakulo pamuthika gwopashitopolwa ogwa guma aantu yomoshitopolwa, pamikalo dhimwe ohagu themenene mboka yaa na oonkondo dha sha pamikalo dhilwe.Omukalo nguka ondjila yi na iinima oyindji, oshiholelwa shika okuza moNamibia otashi ulike nkene tashi vulu okundopa uuna aakalimo yomoshitopolwa inaayi yalulwa. Pwaa na eyambidhidho lyuunongo, eandjagakaneko lyiimaliwa osho wo eyambidhidho lyopautekenika, nena oshidhigu kaanamukunda ya tonatele omeya nawa.

Iilongwa okuza kiitopolwa yilweOkutala koopoloyeka dha fa ndjika miitopolwa yilwe yi ili, otapu vulu okwiilongwa iilongwa iishona. MoIndia nomoGhana, aakiintu oya kalelwa po, moka ya kalelwa po kumboka ya za momihoko ndhoka omidhinwa. Elalakano okukwatela mo omawi ga yooloka metonatelo lyomeya. Nonando shika oshinima oshiwanawa, oshigwana shoka sha simaneka ashike aalumentu, otashi vulu okutya oomeme oye li ko ashike onga oshishani.

Opwa pumbwa omikalo dhimwe dhokuyambidhidha ekuthombinga lyoongundu dha yooloka ndhoka tadhi ka kwathela elongitho lyomeya lyi li nawa.Ope na aakuthimbinga yaa shi yepangelo taya kutha ombinga mokuunganeka nokuwilika ekuthombinga pamuthika gwaakalimo yomoshitoplwa. Iiholelwa yimwe oya kwatela mo omahangano gaa shi gopapangelo moKenya, Ghana naNamibia.
Omahangano ngaka otaga vulu okugandja eyambidhidho nuunongo mpoka aakalimo nepangelo itaya vulu. MoGhana, omahangano gaanafaalama nooyene yomavi popepi nomulonga gwaBlack Volta oya kala nokulongela kumwe noResources Commission opo ku monike omikalo omiwananwa nodha gamenwa dhokulonga omapya.

Yimwe yomoompito mokaeandjagakaneko lyomayakulo pamuthika gwopashitopolwa ya li ya gandja moKenya okwa li okukwatela mo omahangano ngoka haga tonatele shito omeya mokutonatela omeya pamuthika gwopambelewa. Omahangano ngaka ohaga tonatele omeya nuulithilo, netulomumwe lyawo olye eta oshizemo oshiwanawa miitopolwa mbyoka taya longo nayo.

Oshe eta wo eimangokumwe pokati kaakalimo niikondo yopaumwene osho wo omilandu dhi li nawa noku shunitha pevi uufuthi womeya. Omalongelokumwe ngaka oge eta wo opo ku shunithwe pevi omaipumomumwe ge na sha nomeya.

Oshizemo shelunduluko lyonkalo yombepo
Eandjagakaneko lyomayakulo pamuthika gwopashitopolwa olya talika ko wo onga oshinima tashi kwathele aakalimo ya taalele omashongo gelunduluko lyonkalo yombepo. Iikando oyindji, oonkambadhala dhokukwathela aakalimo ya ikilile elunduluko ndika lyonkalo yombepo olyi ikolelela komayamukulo gopautekenika.

Uunongo okuza koludhi nduka lyokugandja omayakulo otawu ulike wo kutya elongekidho neyambulepo lyiinakugwanithwa pokati kaakuthimbinga ya yooloka nepangelo edhigu okutula miilonga. Moka omashongo ogendji haga holoka okuza mokwaa longitha uudemokoli.Ngele aakalimo oya pumbwa okumona mo unene uuwanawa, osha simana omawi gawo ga uvike. Ashike opo shika shi adhike, osha simana oku ya ninga ya kale taya vulu. Opo shi adhike, ope na okukala pe na ekwatathano pokati kepangelo lyopashigwana, iiputudhilo yelongo, omahangano inaaga yama kepangelo osho wo oshikondo shopaumwene.

Ekuthombinga ihali ningwa ashike uuna pe na elunduluko miinakugwanithwa. Ekuthombinga lyomukalo nguka gwokutopola omayakulo osho wo eigililo lyonkalo yombepo olya pumbwa oku etwa po onomenawina, taku longelwa kumwe.
Shika otashi ka kala osho ehuku komutumba gwoAdaptation Futures moshilando shoka sha dhengwa kompumbwe yomeya shoCape Town. Aalongwantu okuza muuyuni awuhe otaya ka gongala opo ya ka ungaunge nomapulo ge na sha nelundulukom lyonkalo yombepo.

• Gina Ziervogel Omupolofesa gwopevi moshikondo shoEnvironmental and Geographical Science nomunashipundi gwoAfrican Climate and Development Initiative Reasearch koUnivesiti yaCape Town. Selma Hegga omupekaapeki koAdaptation at Scale in Semi-Arid Regions Project (ASSAR) koUnivesiti yaCape Town. Brendon Bosworth naIrene Kunamwene oya gandja wo uuyelele owundji moshinyolwa muka.

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