Taku dhimbulukwa etaambeko negaluko lyoWalvis Bay kuNamibia

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Desie Heita

WINDHOEK – Ihashi popiwa olundji kutya oshilongo sho sha mono emanguluko lyasho mo 21 Maalitsa 1990, osha li sha pula sigo omasiku 17 Aguste 1993, opo South Africa a shaine pambelewa mokugandja Walvis Bay nuuntuntu 24 mboka wu li komunkulofuta gwaNamibia, onga oshitopolwa sha Namibia. Sigo omesiku 01 Maalitsa 1994, Walvis Bay okwa li oshitopolwa shepangelo lyokatongotongo lyaSouth Africa moka a li e na mo oshilyo momutumba gwopashigwana gwa South Africa. Shika osha li tashi ningwa manga omutumba gwopashigwana gwaNamibia gwa li tagu fundu moWindhoek. Nena, mEtitano lyomasiku 17 Aguste otatu dhimbulukwa esiku moka South Africa a li a shaina omukanda ngoka gwa gandja Walvis Bay onga oshitopolwa shaNamibia, ashike shika kasha li oshinima oshipu.

OWalvis Bay nuuntuntu waNamibia, uuntuntu nomamamnya ga andjagana komunkulofuta owu li uule wookilometa 355 komukunkulofuta. Omanga wumwe waashi ashike omamamnya, owa kala wu na oshilonga ngele tashi ya komahupilo osho wo kombinga yuunongonononi, oshoka uuwe, uudhila woGuano, osho wo ngashingeyioko wa kala hoka. Ope na aapekaapeki yontumba mboka haya zi muuntuntu wontumba, taya sinanana uudhila womaludhi.

Ashike kashi shi nando uudhila mboka owo wa li etompelo sho epangelo lyokatongotongo lyaSouth Africa, osho wo epangelo lyaAmerica, ya li inaya hala Walvis Bay yi kale oshitopolawa shaNamibia. Manga inaatu ya mo omutse nothingo mushoka, natu tale kondjokonona yaWalvis Bay osho wo uuntuntu wulwe.

Omunawino a dhenga omambo poRhodes JM Kodisang okwa li a ndhindhilike mombapila ye kutya, kutya ekwatoko lyaa li paveta lyo Walvis Bay kuSouth Africa otali shililwa okuya kaayendayendi noombautu yaHolland, Aaputu, America naaFrance moomvula dho1480, moka mwa kwatelwa Barthlomeus Diaz

Onkene, mo1700 etulilo lyoosikepa olya tseyika onga Bahia deBaleas (Bay of Whales nenge Walvis Bay). Aakolonyeki oya li ya longitha okupitila moWalvis Bay okuya moNamibia nokutameka okulongitha oonzo naantu moshilongo.
Mo1973 AaHolland oya li ya ningi etseyitho kutya oWalvis Bay oyawo, Aabritain oya li wo ye shi ningi mo1795. Nonando ongawo osha li ashike mo1878 sho kakutu komatanga gaBritain a li a kutha ko Walvis Bay pambelewa. Britain okwa li a tula uuntutu uukwawo wu li 12kohi yepangelo lye kuyele mo1874. Ngashingeyi Walvis okwa ningi oshitopolwa shaBritaiin.
Epangelo lyaBritain olya li lya dhengwa oshihako pambelewa mo1884/5 sho oWalvis Bay ya tseyithwa onga oshitopolwa shoCape of Good Hope pethimbo lyetopolo lyaAfrica moBerlin. Oshitopolwa oshikwawo ashihe sha South West Africa osha ningi oshitopolwa shaGermany. Kohi yewiliko lyaBritain, okwa li kwa totwa ongongahangano yaSouth Africa, mo1910 Walvis Bay okwa ningi oshitopolwa shaSouth Africa. Ashike shika inashi kala ngaaka ethimbo ele.

Iita yotango yuuyuni oya li ya tameke nokonima Germany sho a li a sindika moEurope okwa li a gandja po iitopolwa ye yimwe mbyoka a li ta kolonyeke muAfrica, e shi ningi okupitila moLeague of Nations onga ofuto kiilongo iikwawo sho a sindika miita. Germany okwa li a thiminikwa a gandje Togoland(Togo) naGerman Kamerun (Cameroon) kuFrance, South West Africa (Namibia noWalvis Bay) kongongahangano yaSouth Africa, ndjoka ya li oshitopolwa shaBritain. East German Africa (Tanzania) okwa li a pewa Britain meukililo.

Kionga Triangle (Mozambique) okwa li a pewa Portugal. German okwa li wo a gandja iitopolwa mbyoka yi li mefuta lyaPacific mbyoka ya li iitopolwa yaKiina naJapan, mbyoka yi li popepi naAustralia oya li ya pewa Australia, nayilwe oya yi kuNew Zealand.
South West Africa naWalvis Bay oye ya kohi yelelo lyopakwiita okuza mo1915 sigo 1920. Ashike oombulu ndhoka dha li tadhi kondjele emanguluko lyawo kuBritain moSouth Africa osha li sha dhigupaleke iinima. Ethimbo sho lya thikana South West Africa a gandjwe momake giigwanahana ngaashi euvathano lyotango osho tali ti, oombulu, ndhoka dha li dha sindana mokumona emanguluko lyawo kuBritain, odha li dha nukile pomutenya. Oya tsikile nokulela South West Africa onga shimwe shomiitopolwa yawo.

Mpoka opo nduno pwe ya oonkundathana opo Namibia li manguluke, konima sho epangelo lyokatongotongo lyaSouth Africa lya li lya sindika koPLAN. South Africa okwa li a tindi thiluthilu okugandja oWalvis Bay nuuntuntu wulwe mboka wu li komukunkulo gwefuta lyaAtlantic. South Africa okwa li i ikwatelela mepopyo ndika kutya shaashi oye a li omukolonyeki gwaSouth West Africa (Namibia), oya pitikwa okuya komeho nomisindalandu dhawo dhuukoloni, ngaashi okukala oye ta pangele nokuwilika omahala ngoka e wete ge na oshilonga, ngaashi Walvis Bay.

Aashike oSwapo oya kala aluhe ya ndjika oonyala mevi kutya Walvis Bay nuuntuntu wulye mefuta iitopolwa yaNamibia. Omupresidente gwoSWAPO ethimbo ndyoka, Sam Nujoma, okwa kala nokweendulula melaka ndika, ngaashi naana a li e shi ningi sho a li a popitha omutumba gwiilyo yiigwanahangana mo 1978 sho a ti: “Swapo okwa kala neyitaalo noku na eyitaalo ndyoka sigo onena kutya oWalvis Bay oshitopolwa sha simana shaNamibia. Kutse epulo kombinga yoWalvis Bay itali ka kundathanwa nando.”

Etompelo lyoshili sho South Africa a li a hala okukala noWalvis Bay ongoshitopolwa she omolwa oohi, oshoka sigo opethimbo lyemanguluko, ekwato lyoohi mefuta olya li momake gomahangano gaSouth Africa, osho wo omahangano ga za kiilongo tayi yambidhidha epangelo lyokatongontongo. Ashike nonando ongawo, opwa li wo pe na etompelo limwe lyi ili oWalvis Bay yi kale momake gaSouth Africa. Chester Crocker, ngoka pethimbo ndyoka a li amushanga gwaAmerica gwiikwapondje, okwa li e shi yeleke kutya oWalvis Bay otayi vulu okulongithwa onga ehala lyokudheula nokutameka okukondjitha iilongo mbyoka ya yama kuukomonisi muumbugantu wAfrica, unene tuu Angola ngoka a li a yama unene kuSoviet Union.

KAamerica, kasha li shi li muuwanawa wawo okukala ye na Namibia lya manguluka, kohi yepangelo lyoSwapo ndyoka lya li kuume kaSoviet Union, okukala ye na oWalvis Bay yi li momake gawo. Oya li ya itaala kutya ngele oWalvis Bay oya kala momake goSwapo, nena Namibia ota ka pitika Soviet Union a kale e na oombautu dhiita ndhoka tadhi ka ponokela South Africa opo dhi gamene Angola, Namibia osho wo kehe oshilongo sha panga uukuume niilongo yokuuninginino muuyuni ngaashi USA, Britain, France nayakwawo.
Ngele oSwapo oya kutha ko oWalvis Bay, nena otayi ka nkundipaleka oonkondo dhaUSA naSouth Africa mokukondjitha uukomonisi waSoviet Union, osho wo Aacuba mboka ya kala taya kondjo pamwe naAgostinho Neto osho wo Eduardo dos Santos molwa emanguluko lyAngola. USA osho wo South Africa oya kala ya hala Jonas Savimbi noUnita oyo ya ye koshipundi.
T
aya yambidhidha Namibia a manguluke pamwe naWalvis Bay oya li Tanzania, Angola, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botsawana, Mozambique naNigeria. Presidente gwaNigeria Shehu Shagari, pethimbo lyomutumba gwongongahangano yiilongo yaAfrica mu Juli 1980 okwa li a indile Namibia a manguluke, nokwa tsikile ko kutya emanguluko lye kee na Walvis Bay olyaafele.

Osha li kohi yelelo lyaShagari sho Nigeria, osho wo oCommonwealth, ya li ya pula ya pingene po omatanga gaCuba moAngola, opo ku palwe ondjila yokatokolitho 435 ka tulwe miilonga. USA naSouth Africa oya kala aluhe nokutula po shoka shin a oku iyuthwa kusho kombinga yekuthomo lyomatanga gopakwiita gaCuba moAngola opo Namibia li manguluke. Nonando Namibia a li a mono emanguluko lye mo21 Maalitsa 1990, osha pula sigo omasiku 17 Aguste 1993 sho aakundathani ya li yi itaala pwaa na omapataneko opo oWalvis Bay yi ninge oshitopolwa shaNamibia.

Aayambidhidhi yongundu yokatongotongo yoNational Party mboka ya li haya zi moWalvis Bay, ndjoka ya li natango oshitopolwa shaSouth Africa mo1993 oya li ya dhengwa pomutima sho yu uvu kutya South Africa okwa ninga etokolo opo a gandje Walvis Bay kuNamibia. Boet Botma, ngoka oye a li oshilyo shomutumba gwopashigwana gwaSouth Africa a kalela po Walvis Bay okwa li a thita po.

“Otwa li twa kengelelwa kaantu yetu. Okwa li twa kwashilipalekwa kutya sigo oompoka ongundu yoNational Party oyo tayi pangele, nena kape na esiku tu gandje oWalvis Bay kuNamibia,” Botma osho a li a ti a thita po, shi ikwatelela kokambo hoka ka shangwa kuPik Botha, ngoka a li nale ominista yiikwapondje yepangelo lyokatongotongo, nokwa dhana onkandangala mekolonyeko lyaNamibia.
Aasouth Africa oya li ya hala oku uva kutya oshike tashi ningwa po kombinga yomikuli dhawo, omagumbo gawo moWalvis Bay ngele oWalvis Bay nuuntuntu wulwe oya gandjwa momake gaNamibia. Nonando oWalvis Bay yi li kokule, yi li ookilometa 800 noongamba dhopopepi naSouth Africa, aayambidhidhi yepangelo lyokatongotongo oya li ya hala okukala Aasouth Africa moSouth Africa Walvis Bay.
Oya li ya hala okufala Pik Botha kompangu yuuyuni. Botha okwa li wo a tseyitha mopaliamende yaSouth Africa kutya epangelo lyokatongotongo kalya li lyi ilongkidha nando osha sho etokolo kombinga yoWalvis Bay lya li lya etwa poshitaafula. Pethimbo ndyoka epangelo lyaSouth Africa olya li lyi li moonkundathana nongundu yoANC shi na sha nemanguluko lyaSouth Africa, naNamibia, pamwe noongundu dhilwe dhekondjelomanguluko niilongo iikwawo muAfrica, oya li ye shi eta puuhayela koANC kutya naya kale ye na South Africa a manguluka ita kolonyeke iilongo iikwawo mbyoka opo ya manguluka.

Ngele South Africa a manguluka okwa kala noWalvis Bay, nena osha hala okutya epangelo epe lyongundu yuundemokoli lyoANC otali kolonyeke Namibia, kohi yoSwapo, ndjoka ya li ya mona iihuna mokukondjitha okatongotongo moSouth Africa. Kapwa li nando ogumwe moAfrica a li a hala okumona oshinima sholudhi ndoka, onkene pethimbo lyoonkundatahana, ANC niilongo yilwe oya li ya pula South Africa i ikuthe mo moshinima shaWalvis Bay, ongoshitopolwa shaSouth Africa a manguluka.

Mesiku 01 Maalitsa 1994 South Africa okwa li a gandja pambelewa walvis Bay momake gaNamibia, naNamibia okwa li a mono emanguluko lye etiyali. Osha pula oomvula ndatu dhoonkundathana, neidhopo mo lyongongangano yiigwana yaAfrica, iilongo mbyoka ya li ye shi kwatela komeho ngaashi Tanzania, Angola, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Botswana mboka ya li ye shi pondola, shoka tashi ithanawa ngashingeyi Etseyitho lyokoHarare ndyoka lya li lye shi yeleke sheke kutya South Africa na gandje oWalvis Bay.

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